Saturday, May 23, 2020

Quality And Profitability Of A Manager - 851 Words

Throughout my years of professional experience, I have served in many capacities. More than others, I have served in some type of leadership/managerial role; rather it being running a non-profit or managing a restaurant in my past roles to heading special projects and teams in my current role. Over the past 4 years, I have been able to develop not only myself to breakthrough results but also create and implement projects that have consistently increased production in the team by more than 40%. Management â€Å"Management is about coping with complexity†¦. Good management brings a degree of order and consistency to key dimensions like the quality and profitability of products.† (Kotter 1990). As a manager, I was very operational and direct. I was responsible for maintaining daily sales goals and ensuring the customer satisfaction was as close to 100% as possible. I was the type of manager who made sure that everyone won and had fun while doing it. I let people know where they lacked and came up with game plans with them to improve on those areas. One of the challenges that I faced when I was promoted as a manager was setting clear boundaries with my employees. I never viewed my employees as people under me so when I had to have those hard conversations it was hard for them to cope with what I was saying because of how positive and motivating I always was. My assessment indicates that I am an â€Å"iD† style of management. Some of the advantages is that I enjoy are developingShow MoreRelatedStrategic Planning : Mission Statement And Goals901 Words   |  4 Pagesto spend time, human capital, and money. There are several steps organizations should follow in the strategic planning process. The strategic planning process begins with the construction of a mission statement and goals. Strategic planning needs managers to frequently analyze the internal and external environments by evaluating strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats; reconsider the organization s mission statement, goals, and strategies for continual significance, making amendments asRead MoreCitysoft Case Essay933 Words   |  4 PagesAnalysis 1. Should we be concerned that CitySoft is focusing on cost, operational control, systems, and quality at the expense of growth? Answer: We don’t need to be concerned about this issue too much. Actually CitySoft has been growing fast since 1998 to 1999, and it is the time to focus more on its cost, operational control and systems in order to improve CitySoft’s profitability in the future. Refining the process of operation and cost management is quite necessary for CitySoft at thisRead MoreDiversity : An Organizations Success And Competitiveness1331 Words   |  6 Pageswith rivalry originating from about each landmass. Consequently, benefit and non-benefit associations need diversified qualities to end up more imaginative and open to change. Managements are focused on gathering of people on the grounds that they have to perceive the routes in which the working environment is evolving, developing, and broadening. Since overseeing different qualities remains a noteworthy hierarchical test, managements must take in the administrative abilities required in a multiculturalRead MoreHow The Laundry Ind ustry Is Worth Around  £ 1 Billion A Year1532 Words   |  7 Pagesironing. After all this be done, then delivery to customers. Cost Reduction In order to compete in laundry marketing environment, company has to compete on cost. Referring to cost, it is the key for a company, reducing the cost means maintain profitability, even increase more profit. Direct Costs: costs that can be easily and conveniently traced to the particular cost object under consideration. To be traced to a cost object, such as a product, the cost must be caused by the cost object. IndirectRead MoreManagement Accounting : The Process Of Producing Management1667 Words   |  7 PagesManagement accounting is the process of producing management reports and accounts which provide accurate and timely information for the use of internal parties within an organisation, such as departmental managers or chief executive officers. The information collected and produced include financial aspects such as amount of cash in hand, capital, liabilities, recent sales revenues, cost of production and also non-financial aspects such as employee’s performances or efficiency of production. In thisRead MoreThe Impact of Training and Development on Employee Performance and Organizational Growth1454 Words   |  6 Pagesstaff to enable them work towards taking the organization to its expected destination. Adeniyi (1995) observed that staff training and development is a work activity that can make a very significant contribution to the overall effectiveness and profitability of an organization. He therefore provides a systematic approach to training which encases the main elements of training. However, for the training function to take effect, the training plan and policies must be in line with the organization’s strategicRead MoreThe Impact of Training and Development on Employee Performance and Organizational Growth1446 Words   |  6 Pagesstaff to enable them work towards taking the organization to its expected destination. Adeniyi (1995) observed that staff training and development is a work activity that can make a very significant contribution to the overall effectiveness and profitability of an organization. He therefore provides a systematic approach to training which encases the main elements of training. However, for the training function to take effect, the training plan and policies must be in line with the organization’s strategicRead MoreUse and Importantance of Financial and Non-Financial Performance1157 Words   |  5 Pagesarticle to explore the use and degree of importance that managers affiliated many types of performance indicators which are in the MBS’s program agreement. It is divided into two main categories which is financial indicators and non-financial indicators. The category under financial indicators includes unit cost of output type (cost per identity card), cost reduction type (to achieve certain percent savings in operational costs), and profitability type (Return on Capital Employed - ROCE). Whereas, categoryRead MoreStrategies For Achieving Global Competitive Advantage1475 Words   |  6 Pagesin a more desirable fashion for customers. These conditions permit the entity to generate more sales or greater margins than its competition. The compet itive advantages are ascribed to an assortment of variables, including brand, cost structure, quality of product, distribution network, and customer support. But the main two basics for achieving competitive advantage are cost advantage and differentiation advantage. Samsung is one of the fastest growing brands. The Samsung group wasRead MoreEssay on Types Of Research1400 Words   |  6 Pageseveryday. Research is used in the many different situations managers encounter everyday. Research is part of the problem-solving manager do to make decisions. Research is defined as â€Å"the process of finding solutions to problem after thorough study and analysis of the situational factor† (Sekaran, p3, 2003). Managers use research for daily operational problem as well as bigger problems that can require hired research consultants. Managers who use research are able to communicate with the hired consultants

Monday, May 18, 2020

Nature Vs Nurture Debate - 1291 Words

How is the nature vs nurture debate related to a consideration of the mental disorder, schizophrenia? INTRODUCTION Schizophrenia is categorized by thoughts or experiences that seem abnormal with reality, disorganized speech or behaviour and decreased participation in regular daily activities. Difficulty with memory and concentration are sometimes also present. The two hit hypothesis generally refers to a genetic vulnerability, which is known as the first hit, triggered by something in the environment, which is known as the second hit The first hit is proposed to involve disruption of some sort of brain mechanism that is susceptible to numerous genetic and environmental agitations, and capable of producing long-term significant changes.†¦show more content†¦Procedure: The procedure was a case study, and the researcher interviewed two brothers, which are both diagnosed with the mental disorder, schizophrenia. While being interviewed, they spoke about their past experiences during their childhood, and how their mother had the carrier gene, which one twin inherited. Conclusions / Results: Conclusions suggest that the nature vs nurture dichotomy may not be as relevant as looking at the interaction between these two forces. It was discovered that while one’s genetic heritage creates a predisposition towards schizophrenia, other factors such as the home environment, the parental environment, dietary factors and others may determine whether the disease is manifested. Source 2: Schizophrenia as a complex trait Sullivan, P.F, Kendler, K.S, Neale, M.C. (2003) Schizophrenia as a complex trait. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 60, 1187-1192. Aim: To calculate meta-analytic estimates of heritability in liability and shared an individual – specific environmental effects from the pooled twin data. Procedure: To identify all relevant primary studies, computerized PubMed searches for an inclusive list of descriptors were performed and searched the reference lists of prior reviews of schizophrenia to identify any reports not retrieved in the PubMed search. 14 published studies were identified of schizophrenia from independent samples in 6 European countries, Japan andShow MoreRelatedNature Vs. Nurture Debate1427 Words   |  6 Pagesparents use authoritarian methods and punishment.† The nature Vs nurture debate has been around since 1690 created by the philosopher John Locke who believed we as humans do not have natural, inborn ideas; that our minds are a blank page, upon which experience shall write. Nurture is everything and nature is simply nothing. â€Å"Nature is what we think of as pre-wiring and is influenced by genetic inheritance and other biological factors. Nurture is generally taken as the influence of external factorsRead MoreNature Vs. Nurture Debate878 Wo rds   |  4 Pagespersonalities and traits produced by genetics or shaped by the environment? Or, is there a relationship between nature and nurture with regards to child development? The debate continues. While some believe â€Å"nature and nurture work together, others believe they are separate and opposing influences† (McDevitt, 2010). Nature vs Nurture In regards to the nature vs. nurture debate, â€Å"this debate is a major issue in many social science disciplines and is concerned with the influence that biology, geneticsRead MoreNature Vs Nurture Debate1343 Words   |  6 Pagescontroversial to psychologist since the phrase was created in 1869 is â€Å"Nature vs Nurture†. Although the debate was started well before then, 1869 was the first time it was tied to the debate. The nature vs nurture debate is over whether you get your behavior from genetics, what you inherited from your biological parents, or if they are learned characteristics, what you learn from the environment and what you get taught. The debate can be traced back to early western philosophy and is still relevantRead MoreNature Vs. Nurture Debate1332 Words   |  6 PagesNature vs Nurture debate is one of the oldest arguments in the history of psychology. The debate is about to know if our personality and talents come from our parent or environment? The coding of genes in each cell in humans determine the different traits that we have, more physical attributes dominance like ear size, eye colour, , height, hair colour and other traits. However, it is still not known whether the more abstract attributes like, intelligence, sexual orientation, personality, preferencesRead MoreNature Vs. Nurture Debate1863 Words   |  8 PagesNature vs. Nurture Albert Camus once said, â€Å"Man is the only creature who refuses to be what he is.† But what makes man what he is? Is it his sheer genetic makeup, or is it the way he was raised? The nature vs. nurture debate has raged on for centuries, but neither side has been able to prove their point indefinitely. Even today we see displays of the contrast between genetics and learned behaviors, in athletics, in intelligence, in behavior, in medical history, and in work ethic. Each personRead MoreThe Debate On Nature Vs Nurture Essay1435 Words   |  6 Pagesdubious history of the debate on nature vs nurture continues to be a controversy, more and more psychologists start to rise from both sides of the argument. The earliest evidence can be traced back to the time of John Locke, who believes that our minds are blank slates and only experience can write override it. Despite the main focus of the issue being how environment transact to influence development, psychologists today cont inue to argue on the issue of nature vs nurture. Intelligence is more ofRead MoreNature Vs. Nurture Debate2114 Words   |  9 PagesNature vs. Nurture Albert Camus once said, â€Å"Man is the only creature who refuses to be what he is.† But what makes man what he is? Is it his sheer genetic makeup, or is it the way he was raised? The nature vs. nurture debate has raged on for centuries, but neither side has been able to prove their point indefinitely. Even today we see displays of the contrast between genetics and learned behaviors, some of which are athletics, intelligence, medical histories, etc. Every person is completelyRead MoreThe Nature Vs. Nurture Debate2673 Words   |  11 Pagesamount of social interaction is going to have a positive benefit, for young kids or any age. One of the most famous debates in Psychology is the Nature vs. Nurture debate, which has been going on since the time of Aristotle. The aspect within this debate comes to the question of; did the aspects of our behavior become because we inherited our characteristics from our parents know as the Nature? The other question leads up to our behavi or of; did we get our characteristics from what we learned from theRead MoreNature Vs. Nurture : The Debate Of Nature Versus Nurture895 Words   |  4 PagesNature vs. Nurture The debate of nature versus nurture has been an ongoing debate for a long time. When applying this argument to education there is no proven winner. The nature side of the coin believes that a person is born the way that they are. This could include intelligence level or personality traits such as being outgoing or shy. The other side of the argument of nurture believes that the type of upbringing that someone has will play a large role in the way they develop. It is thoughtRead MoreThe Debate Of Nature Vs Nurture1364 Words   |  6 PagesThe ongoing debate of Nature vs Nurture is one of the oldest philosophical issues. The nature theory argues that all genes, and hereditary factors, influences an individual in terms of their physical appearance to their personality characteristics (Cherry, 2017). Conversely, the nurture theory argues that all environmental variables impact who individuals are, including early childhood experiences, how individuals were raised, social relations hips, and surrounding culture (Cherry, 2017). However

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

A New Age Of Post Modernity Essay - 1582 Words

Modernity Describe the main features of the shift from modernity to postmodernity Post modernity or post modernism as coined during the counter culture era of the 1960s and 70s has been highly contestant, ever since it was first used describe the death of modern architecture and art during the same period. It is this debate of being in a state of modernity or post modernity that will lead me to describe the shifts in cultural, economic and political views and values that demonstrates a shift in values from modern to post modern views sociy. This shift to post modernity has been highly influenced through the works of postmodern artists and architects and academics such as Focult (Venn, C., Featherstone, M. 2006), Burroughs, Barthelme, Rauschenberg and Cage (Clarke, S. 2006), who all describe modernity being an exhausted idea, due to the shift of values changing society to a period of post modernity. In this essay I will argue that we are now living in a new age of post modernity by describing and explaining the transition of modernity to post modernity by analysing the social dimensions that modernity has shifted from to postmodernity. I will also look at the main features of both modernity and postmodernity and explore their features to draw the conclusion that postmodernity is not a new era but a new social movement of different views and perspectives. The shifts modernity to post modernityShow MoreRelatedSocial Change and then Post Modernity1090 Words   |  4 PagesPost modernity was the successor of modernity in the time line of social change. It celebrates diversity and focuses thoroughly on the importance of the unconscious and puts emphasis on the free. It is an anything goes theory, full of new age beliefs and decisions. There is no consensus regarding when exactly postmodernity started, what it actually is, or whether it even exists. The term postmodern is irrational: modern means now, present, and up-to-date. Whereas postmodern means nothing but futureRead MoreAsses to the Extent in Which Soceity Has Entered a Period of Modernity1283 Words   |  6 PagesThese sociologists being postmodernists. Until recent years society is said to have been in a state of Modernity (is that right..?) and postmodernists have argued we have entered into a stage of Post Modernity. This change in society could be seen as easily noticed by the changed through different changes within society, for example the change from Industrialisation to Globalisation. Modernity focuses greatly on the difference in class being an important factor in a modernist society, where as aRead MoreWomen s Impact On Women During The Sun s Never Leave Yourself By Eileen P. Anderson1624 Words   |  7 PagesThroughout time, women have endured many things. In Never Leave Yourself by Eileen P. Anderson-Fye and Reinterpreting the Labor Mobility of Rural Young Women in post-Mao China by Yan Hairong, women have had to change during times of modernity; different ideas have become salient in the minds of these women due to the forces of modernity and globalization. An idea or sense of liberation is apparent in both of these articles. Belizean women have managed to succeed on what they perceive as liberation;Read MoreEvaluate Postmodernist Explanations of the Role and Functions of Religion in Contemporary Society.1606 Words   |  7 Pagesreligion emphasises the key point that religious truth is highly individualistic, subjective and resides within the individual. Science technology and efficiency would overcome many social problems. The collapse of the ‘grand-narrative’ is part of post-modernism as it is a belief system that claims universal authority, religion; science and philosophies are examples of these. They have a superior status over other belief systems and also claimed they could explain the causes of society’s problemsRead MoreSummary Of Wole Soyinkas The Lion And The Jewel1617 Words   |  7 PagesFor my final paper I chose the works of Wole Soyinka and his play The Lion and the Jewel. Throughout this play there is a constant battle between tradition and modernity as well as a post-colonial struggle seen both in a exhibited in the plays village of Ilujinle. Soyinka published this play at the time Nigeria was battling for independence an d freedom under the British control around the 1940’s and 1950’s. Due to this, Nigeria was struggling with whether or not it was prepared for independenceRead MoreHow the Social Importance of Religion Has Receded with Modernity1617 Words   |  7 PagesReligion has always been of high social importance and influence within civilization and their society. This essay will argue that as modernity has progressed the social importance of religion has receded, but the gradient of this recession and by how much varies upon the society. Modernity typically refers to a â€Å"post-medieval historical period, one marked by the move from feudalism toward capitalism, industrialization, secularization, rationalization, the nation-state and its constituent institutions†Read MoreThe Role Of Role During The Middle Eastern Modernity953 Words   |  4 PagesEuropeans in Middle Eastern Modernity The term modernity is widely used to refer to various changes in cultural and social norms that occurred in post-medieval Europe. The concept includes different but interrelated historical and cultural events that impacted politics, human culture, and social institutions. In simple words, modernity can be referred to as the aspect of being up to date, usually characterized by a contemporary way of thinking or living. The onset of modernity in any society is oftenRead MoreFamily And Its Impact On Society826 Words   |  4 PagesThe meaning of family and understanding the term family and its importance to life had survived some remarkable changes (Ketzer barbagli, 2003). With the rise of modernity, rapid changes have been seen in many aspects of social life, which have altered the roles and functions of the family. For us to understand the impact modernity had on family we must know the transformation from old-fashioned families to modern day. The word family is perhaps the most vital network in human society. As kidsRead MoreModernity And Technology922 Words   |  4 PagesThis is the digital age. Nearly everything that an individual encounters in life has some sort of attachment to technology. Interestingly enough, technology is defined as, â€Å"a manner of accomplishing a task especially using  technical  processes, methods, or knowledge,† (Merriam Webster). This attributes a task being complete via an advanced method of methodology. With that in mind, this concept of technology could be referred to as being relative to a particular time space. Therefore, this paper refersRead More Are We in a Post-Modern Age? Essay example2828 Words   |  12 PagesThis paper answers the question: Are We in a Post-Modern Age? Post-Modernism can be described as a particular style of thought. It is a concept that correlates the emergence of new features and types of social life and economic order in a culture; often called modernization, post-industrial, consumer, media, or multinational capitalistic societies. In Modernity, we have the sense or idea that the present is discontinuous with the past, that through a process of social, technological, and

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Casualties Of War By Ambrose Bierce - 1097 Words

Matthew Bronson English 1102 Dr. Allen 13 July 2016 Casualties of War Ambrose Bierce is noted as a literary genius for his short stories on the civil war. His military experience during the Civil War allowed him to write some of his most memorable short stories. He is most noted for his story, â€Å"An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge.† It is a story of a man’s last thoughts before being hanged. The story tells about a man, Peyton Farquhar, who was deceived and is condemned to death for doing what he thought would be helping the Confederate Army. In the moment before Farquhar’s death, Bierce paints the reader a colorful description of what goes through Farquhar’s mind. Through what he saw and experienced in the Civil War along with his†¦show more content†¦According to Napier Wilt, â€Å"Following Shiloh [Bierce’s] regiment took part in the siege of Corinth and after the evacuation of the city, was engaged in guarding a repairing the railroads in the vicinity† (Wilt, 262). Bierce , being a part of railroad construction knew exactly how to describe it. He uses his skill learned as a journalist and his experience in the war to paint a clear picture of the railroad bridge and how Farquhar is bound. His use of imagery not only allows the readers to visualize the people but the scenery as well. Bierce describes how Farquhar feels after his escape in great detail. After Farquhar falls through the bridge Bierce states, â€Å"These pains appeared to flash along well-defined lines of ramification, and to beat with an inconceivably rapid periodicity. They seemed like streams of pulsating fire heating him to an intolerable temperature† (554). The way he describes the pain lets the reader know the pain Farquhar is feeling is intense and throbbing. Wilt writes, â€Å"Bierce enlisted as a private in Company C, Ninth Indiana Infantry in 1861, where he served until 1865† (Wilt, 261). During this period, he was involved in some of the bloodiest battles during the Civil War. Being a firsthand witness to the carnage of war, along with his journalism background, allows Bierce to describe pain in a way the reader can virtually see and feel what Farquhar is going through. Bierce gives the reader a vivid vision of

Discipline and Corporal Punishment Free Essays

Corporal punishment by definition is the deliberate infliction of physical pain as a system of changing behaviour. Corporal punishment may consist of methods such as shaking, pinching, kicking, punching, slapping, hitting, painful body posture, or use of different objects such as sticks, belts and paddles (National Association of School Nurses, 2002, p. 1). We will write a custom essay sample on Discipline and Corporal Punishment or any similar topic only for you Order Now In the past, corporal punishment was a technique of disciplining youth and children in the school setting. At present, several States in America have enacted legislation banning corporal punishment in schools. On the other hand corporal punishment has been an accepted mode of reprimand that several parents choose to integrate into their lives without giving a careful consideration. The mode of punishment can commence at any time but is generally initiated within the start of the child’s grade school (Mathews, 2006, p. 1). The physical inflictions can be tolerated all the way until the teenager grows old enough to leave or be independent. This type of correction is purely torture, which has been employed for centuries and is still a frightening and disturbing incidence in several families today. Dr. Murray Straus of the University of New Hampshire Family Research Laboratory revealed that corporal punishment: when regularly imposed to children it increases their antisocial behaviour such as bullying, cheating, stealing, lying, assaulting peers or sibling, and lack of repentance for erroneous doings (The Center for Effective Discipline, n. d. ); provides as a model for violent behaviour and for improper ways of dealing with disagreement among the punished children; erodes trust between a child and parent; and badly influences cognitive development of the child. Corporal punishment is not desirable for the reason that it increases the risk of child abuse and adults who were frequently hit during their childhood are likely to experience depression and other unconstructive mental health and social effects. This form of punishment can have a negative effect on the affected children as it relates to their physical and mental growth and health, as they are at a period of fragile mental capacity. Finally, corporal punishment is not desirable because children are entitled to security, care and good rearing from their parents and teachers. Adults should understand the significance of recognizing corrective discipline instead of outright imposition of corporal punishment in disciplining children. Because children’s ability to control their own behaviour is limited, corrective discipline is an important characteristic of adequate parenting for the reason that it generates the best preventive steps, which is reducing the occurrence of misconduct, and not eliminating it (Straus, Fauchier, 2007, p. 5). Corrective discipline incorporates positive in addition to disciplinary behaviours, and combinations of the two. Conclusion Corporal punishment has a strong possibility to influence the child’s self-image and contribute to violent and disruptive behaviours. However, the practice remains a commonly used method of discipline in most American families and is still legal in educational institutions in several States in America. The progress of social skills after the infliction of corporal punishment may be severely changed, leading to belligerent behaviours. The imposition of corporal punishment also advances the message that cruelty is an acceptable form of behaviour in the society. Clearly, corporal punishment is not desirable and effective in enforcing discipline among children. How to cite Discipline and Corporal Punishment, Papers

Counselling for Grief and Loss for Condition- myassignmenthelp

Question: Dsicuss about theCounselling for Grief and Loss for Condition. Answer: Grief is a multifaceted and intense emotional response to loss which leads to indefinite period of bereavement and suffering for people. The circumstances of loss may be different for different person. Some examples of losses includes death of a loved one, divorce, deteriorating health or physical condition, changes in social position or self respect or certain accidents in life (Hall 2014). Continuous period of bereavement has a negative impact on people evident by physical signs, emotional symptoms, social changes and unusual thought pattern of people. The perception about losses has a great impact on patient and they go through many traumatic experiences during the grieving process. Bereavement in the elderly is a major concern because their suffering is more pronounced because of significant decline in cognitive function, sudden loss of support and serious risk to quality of life (Hashim et al. 2013). The main purpose of this essay is to critically explore grief and loss experien ce for older adults and reflect on the experience based on two contemporary theories. It also provides a discussion regarding the benefits of the theories and its practical application in the counseling process for older people with bereavement. My personal experience related to a period of grief and loss in my life occurred when I witnessed my grandmothers death in front of me. I was closely attached to my grandmother and spent a lot of time with her. However, in her last stage of life, she was diagnosed with cancer. I directly witnessed how her health deteriorated day by day and she became dependent on life support system for every single breath. One day she died in front of me when I saw her breathing stopped all of a sudden. This close experience of witnessing death of my closed one shattered me completely. I could not come out from grief for a long time. I lost interest in my work activities and spend most of the time crying and remembering the sufferings of my grandmother. I yearned to see her again and had the guilt that I could do enough to save her. Eventually, it took physical and emotional toll on my health too as I tried to keep to myself and stopped interacting in social spaces. Normally, in complex grieving pro cess, the support from counseling only helps people to rebuild their life. However, for me, my mother proved to be pillar of support and she helped me to cope with the loss and accept the reality of death. The support from my family members helped in my recovery because my grief was not so complicated that it required specialized support. The feeling of loss and grief symptoms was for a temporary period unlike complicated grief which persists for a longer period of time. The above experience is my personal experience of loss, however it does not provides any insight into the grieving process and challenges for older adults going through bereavement. However, focusing on the bereavement process in older Australians is important because they are most vulnerable to negative health outcome due to the loss of their loves one (Parkes and Prigerson 2013). The experience of grief is intense and the most common reaction to grief in all age groups mostly include feelings of despair, yearning, shock, intense sadness, guilt and anger. The common physical responses of grief include change in appetite, difficulty in sleeping, illness, crying, muscle tensions and suicidal thoughts in severe cases (Papa, Lancaster and Kahler 2014). Older people show different response to bereavement due to diverse experience of loss. For older people, bereavement is a frequent experience as they endure loss of spouse, family members or close friends. The impact of loss is huge parti cularly for older women as death of close family members result in reduction of social support networks (Ingham et al. 2017). Hence, death of closed ones becomes a major life stressor for them as they also have to cope with losses associated with old age such as poor health and poor capacity to self care. For older people, loss of loved ones results in sudden withdrawal of care and support for them. This is because often the person who dies is long term partner and source of care giving for them. This type of loss is mainly defined as loss due to death of a spouse. All of a sudden, the lose independence and support to manage home and negotiate daily livings. Fear of living alone and losing independence overwhelms them and poor health and depression becomes common in such older adults (Naef et al. 2013). Bratt, Stenstrz and Rennemark (2017) identified three common bereavement patterns in older people such as short term disruption in functioning caused by illness, depression and cognitive decline, chronic disruptions and relative absence of grief reactions. Hence, it can be said that the severity of loss is dependent on nature of relationship with the person who had died and significance of the loss in terms of practical, social, financial and emotional needs. As spouse is the one who i s responsible to support their partner in all dimensions of life, hence impact of loss is huge in such cases. One study has showed spousal loss plays a major role in the development of depressive symptoms in the elderly. The loss of spouse changes the quality and quantity of social integration in elderly which is a major factor contributing to elevated depressive symptoms. Often the level of severity is such that immediate psychosocial support and early detection of complicated grief is necessary to identify appropriate treatment option for older people (Sikorski et al. 2014). Hence, for counselors, inquiring the bereaved elderly adult about the meaning of loss for them, impact of social and practical life needs, current help or support needed is critical to identify the severity of depressive symptoms and take adequate action. Older people mostly seek bereavement support from their physician to cope with losses, however specialized grief specific service are like cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy are the effective treatment option to treat elderly people with bereavement (Ghe squiere, Shear and Duan 2013). As elderly people lose the capability to self care after the loss of their loved ones, there is a need to promote independence and self care in them following bereavement to help them recover from the grieving process. Other forms of losses experienced by older Australian might be loss of family members due to murder, mismanagement by health care personnel or by car accident. The bereaved circumstances of an individual differs due to unsupportive family, lack of care from family members, loss of independence, lack of social and other supports and low socio-economic status A study revealed that people with low income and low education level fail to access appropriate support following loss of loved ones (Cacciatore, Killian and Harper 2016). In all types of losses, the main grief characteristic is yearning and longing for the person, frequent thought of the person and low interest in routine life activities. Older adults mostly experience acute form of grief where the bereaved person regains interest and pleasure in everyday activities after some time. However, about 7% of the bereaved adults experience complicated grief, a mental health condition resulting from prolonged acute grief (Shear, Ghesqui ere and Glickman 2013). The main criteria that differentiate complicated grief from normal grief include severity and duration of symptoms, delayed onset of reactions and level of dysfunction. Negative physical and mental health consequences increase in older people due to complicated grief reactions (Shear, Ghesquiere and Glickman 2013. Hence, counseling is most important in treatment of complicated grief reaction of people. The whole process of grief and differential response to losses in different circumstance of older adults can also be analyzed according to two contemporary theories of grief. The first theory is the Stroebe Schuts Dual process of coping with bereavement and it mainly integrates cognitive stress theory with attachment theory. The main assumption of this theory is that coping style of bereaved individual differs on the style of attachment, however brief complications contribute to insecure attachment styles (Stroebe and Schut 2015). Hence, the dual process model explains the shift in two complimentary sets of processes such as the loss orientation and restoration orientation of people. In case of personal experience with grief as well as different types of grief experiences by older adults, experience of loneliness and social isolation following death of loved ones is an example of insecure attachment styles (Fried et al. 2015). People experience loneliness due to complicated grief re actions such as yearning for the person, extreme depression and inability to trust others. The feelings of loss consequently develop into loneliness and loneliness is the main contributing factor for depression in such individuals too (van Beljouw et al. 2014). Hence, in case of issues of loneliness during the bereavement process, counselors can focus on addressing the restoration orientation of people. This will promote changing identity of people and helping older to people to master certain skills that will help them to cope with the grieving process. The application of Stroebe Schuts Dual process theory is considered in the counseling process of bereaved older adults because it mainly represents grief and discusses the regulatory coping process of oscillation between loss orientation and restoration orientation to promote healing and adaptive coping in people. The dual process model mainly proposes adaptive coping by the confrontation and acceptance of loss and changing perspective related to death of affected person. The main advantage of applying dual process in counseling for older adults with bereavement is that by embracing the idea of confronting the situation, the older people can accept the reality of death and they are able to live their lives with desired stability (Carr 2010). Hence, for counselors, the challenges in treating older people experience grief can be minimized. This is because dual process models help the client to take control over the situation and prepare them to cope with post loss life events. Counselors engaging in treating older patient with grief experience can apply dual process model to understand the intent and motivation of the person to adjust with losses. Based on this identification, adequate coping process and skills can be developed in older adults to strengthen their self-care skills and reduces feelings of grief. The only constraint and barrier in applying the dual process model in counseling is that many questions related to the model still remains unanswered. For example, family dynamics has a major impact on the personal grief person however the model does not provided adequate guideline to differentiate individual and family approaches in the coping process (Stroebe and Schut 2015). Hence, future research is still needed on the dual process model by extending the family approach. Appropriate guideline will help to determine whether individual or family level approach is needed to develop coping skills in older adults (Stroebe and Schut 2010). Another contemporary theory that can be considered to address bereavement and griefing related issues in older adults includes the Rubins Two Track Model of bereavement. The Two Track Model of bereavement of incorporates biopsychosocial functioning and the nature of the relationship to the deceased. This is recent model unlike the dual process model and focuses on assessment and intervention for clients according to their needs. Use of this model can facilitate understanding bereavement through the dimension of biopsychosocial functioning in people and understanding the relationship to the deceased. The counselors looking to treat older adults with bereavement can assess biopsychosocial functioning in older adults by analyzing symptom of stress, trauma and change in life pattern after the family members death. The second dimension of the Two Track Model can guide the counselors to know about relational bonds of client with the deceased person (Rubin and Shechory-Stahl 2013). The Two Track Model of Bereavement has also been studied to understand life functioning and relationship to partner and spouse. Older adults are most vulnerable to negative physical and mental health outcomes due to loss of spouse (Bar-Nadav and Rubin 2016). Hence, Two Track Model can be a guide to assess level of functioning before and after the death of spouse. According to Bruinsma et al. (2015), the main risk factors for complicated grief in older adults include cumulative losses, being the primary care giver, mistreatment in society, poverty and homelessness and physical decline in health and terminal illness. Due to the consequences of ageing and accumulation of years of living, accumulated loss and vulnerability increase in older adults. Hence, older people are most vulnerable to emotional and psychological distress after the death of the closed member. This kind of risk and vulnerability of older people to bereavement can be identified by the Two Track Model. Another advantage of using this model for bereavement counseling is counselors can use this as a guide to develop questionnaire for clients during the counseling session. This can give useful idea about the complications of grief in older adults. Study on bereavement experience in older people has mainly revealed experience of negative health effects, loneliness, changed identity and continuing bonds with deceased person. Continuing bond is related to presence on on-going inner relationship with the deceased person. They have dream of the dead spouse or find comfort in memories to stay close to the deceased person (Supiano and Luptak 2013). The application of Two Track Model of Bereavement is also seen in research studies to assess continuing bonds of bereaved parents. The study done with parents who lost their sons in war has revealed that relationship to deceased child continues for all parents, however the bereavement outcome in people is affected by the manner in which the deceased person is recollected (Rubin and Shechory-Stahl 2013). Hence, the main advantage of Two Track Model of Bereavement is that it has addressed the shortcomings in other grief models and balanced the excess of different approach. The understanding of relationship with deceased person and manner of reminiscing can promote critical understanding of the bereavement process and adjusting lifestyle and coping style of older adults. Hence, this model can facilitate bereavement risk assessment process and help counselor to identify the appropriate cognitive or psychological intervention needed to address grief in older adults. The essay summarized the different types of grief experience and challenges faced by older adults due to loss of close family members. The rational for special focus on identifying bereavement experience of older adult is that consequences of ageing and dependence on others for self-care increase their vulnerability to depression, loneliness and poor physical health in older adults. The importance of counseling intervention in older people bereavement is realized when complicated grief process is present in older adults for longer period of time. The essay compared and critically analyzed the dual process theory and the Two Track Model to identify how application of this theory can support understanding of the bereavement process and determining healthy or negative continuing relationship with deceased individual. The advantage of Two Track model has been proved to change the manner of continuing bond with deceased person and engaging in healthy living by developing positive percepti on about death of the person. This can facilitate better acceptance of death and brining stability in life. Reference Bar-Nadav, O. and Rubin, S.S., 2016. Love and Bereavement: Life Functioning and Relationship to Partner and Spouse in Bereaved and Nonbereaved Young Women.OMEGA-Journal of Death and Dying,74(1), pp.62-79. Bratt, A.S., Stenstrm, U. and Rennemark, M., 2017. Effects on life satisfaction of older adults after child and spouse bereavement.Aging mental health,21(6), pp.602-608. Bruinsma, S. M., Tiemeier, H. W., Heemst, J. V. V., van der Heide, A., and Rietjens, J. A. 2015. Risk factors for complicated grief in older adults.Journal of palliative medicine,18(5), 438-446. Cacciatore, J., Killian, M. and Harper, M., 2016. Adverse outcomes in bereaved mothers: the importance of household income and education.SSM-Population Health,2, pp.117-122. Carr, D., 2010. New perspectives on the dual process model (DPM): What have we learned? What questions remain?.OMEGA-Journal of Death and Dying,61(4), pp.371-380. Fried, E.I., Bockting, C., Arjadi, R., Borsboom, D., Amshoff, M., Cramer, A.O., Epskamp, S., Tuerlinckx, F., Carr, D. and Stroebe, M., 2015. From loss to loneliness: The relationship between bereavement and depressive symptoms.Journal of abnormal psychology,124(2), p.256. Ghesquiere, A., Shear, M.K. and Duan, N., 2013. Outcomes of bereavement care among widowed older adults with complicated grief and depression.Journal of primary care community health,4(4), pp.256-264. Hall, C., 2014. Bereavement theory: recent developments in our understanding of grief and bereavement.Bereavement Care,33(1), pp.7-12. Hashim, S.M., Eng, T.C., Tohit, N. and Wahab, S., 2013. Bereavement in the elderly: the role of primary care.Mental health in family medicine,10(3), p.159. Ingham, C.F., Eccles, F.J., Armitage, J.R. and Murray, C.D., 2017. Same-sex partner bereavement in older women: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.Aging mental health,21(9), pp.917-925. Naef, R., Ward, R., Mahrer-Imhof, R. and Grande, G., 2013. Characteristics of the bereavement experience of older persons after spousal loss: An integrative review.International Journal of Nursing Studies,50(8), pp.1108-1121. Papa, A., Lancaster, N.G. and Kahler, J., 2014. Commonalities in grief responding across bereavement and non-bereavement losses.Journal of affective disorders,161, pp.136-143. Parkes, C.M. and Prigerson, H.G., 2013.Bereavement: Studies of grief in adult life. Routledge. Rubin, S.S. and Shechory-Stahl, M., 2013. The continuing bonds of bereaved parents: A ten-year follow-up study with the two-track model of bereavement.OMEGA-Journal of Death and Dying,66(4), pp.365-384. Shear, M.K., Ghesquiere, A. and Glickman, K., 2013. Bereavement and complicated grief.Current psychiatry reports,15(11), p.406. Sikorski, C., Luppa, M., Heser, K., Ernst, A., Lange, C., Werle, J., Bickel, H., Msch, E., Wiese, B., Prokein, J. and Fuchs, A., 2014. The role of spousal loss in the development of depressive symptoms in the elderlyimplications for diagnostic systems.Journal of affective disorders,161, pp.97-103. Stroebe, M. and Schut, H., 2010. The dual process model of coping with bereavement: A decade on.OMEGA-Journal of Death and Dying,61(4), pp.273-289. Stroebe, M., and Schut, H. 2015. Family matters in bereavement: Toward an integrative intra-interpersonal coping model.Perspectives on Psychological Science,10(6), 873-879. Supiano, K.P. and Luptak, M., 2013. Complicated grief in older adults: A randomized controlled trial of complicated grief group therapy.The Gerontologist,54(5), pp.840-856. van Beljouw, I.M., van Exel, E., de Jong Gierveld, J., Comijs, H.C., Heerings, M., Stek, M.L. and van Marwijk, H.W., 2014. Being all alone makes me sad: loneliness in older adults with depressive symptoms.International psychogeriatrics,26(9), pp.1541-1551.

Sunday, May 3, 2020

College Management System free essay sample

Computerized college management system is developed to facilitate the general administration system to manage the various information of student and employees involved in college. So, that college can access accurate information quickly and easily as and when required, thereby improving its operational efficiency and effectiveness. 1. 1Problem Statement In case of manual system they need a lot of time, manpower etc. Here almost all work is computerized. So the accuracy is maintained. College Management System mainly deals with Employee Profile, Payroll Management and Fee collection which can be managed by the Admin. 1. 2 Objectives †¢ Create employee details, achievements and workshop they have conducted †¢ Calculate the employee salary in payroll management †¢ Store the fee details of students and view CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY 2. 1 Introduction Today in colleges student details are entered manually. The student details in separate records are tedious task. Referring to all these records and updating is needed. There is a chance for more manual errors. By developing the system we can attain the following facilities. ? Easy to handle and feasible. ? Cost reduction. ? Fast and convenient. 2. 2 Existing system In early days College management system used to manages all the details manually. Which is difficult in conventional management system which maintains the records manually, which slows the operation of storing, retrieving of records from the files, also led to drawbacks like data redundancy and inconsistency. Limitation In early days College management system used to manages all the details manually. 2. 3 Proposed system To overcome the drawbacks faced in conventional systems we are moving towards modern approach in which we automate these processes, for efficient management of organization. By building customized application software, computerized maintenance of these details by the use of this application will provide ease-of-use, efficient store/access to data and prevents data redundancy. In our application we have computerized all the manual system. In this application admin will enter the details of employee and also enter the salary details. Admin enter the details student fee details. CHAPTER 3 REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION AND ANALYSIS 3. 1 Software Requirement Specification Introduction A Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is a complete description of the behavior of the system that is to be developed. Use Case technique can be used in order to find functional requirements of the software product. Functional requirements are statements of services the system should provide, how the system should react to particular inputs and how the system should behave in particular situations. The functional requirements also explicitly state what the system should not do. SRS also includes Non-functional (or supplementary) requirements. Non-functional requirements are constraints on the services or functions offered by the system. As system grew more complex, it becomes evident that the goal of the entire system cannot be easily comprehended. Hence the need for the requirement phase arose. ROLE PURPOSE of SRS This SRS describes the software functional non functional requirements. This document is intended to use by the members of the project team that will implement and verify the correct functioning of the system. Unless otherwise noted, all requirements specified here are high priorities and committed. A complete understanding of software requirements is essential to the success of a software development effort. No matter how well designed or well coded. A poorly analyzed and specified program will disappoint the client. Software Requirements Specification (SRS) specifies the general factors like the external interfaces, evolution or growth path of the system, functional requirements, user characteristics and the assumptions, dependencies and risks associated with the system. 3. Requirement Specification 1. Functional Requirements ? Admin will create all employee details with their photos ? List all the details of employee ? Store and Display the workshops conducted by the employee ? Calculate the employee salary and display ? Store and display the fee details of students 3. 2. 2 Non-Functional Requirements †¢ Availability System must be available for the working hours. †¢ Price C ost is less. †¢ Usability – It should be friendly to use and access different pages. User interface should be good. †¢ Scalability- It should support at least 5000 users. Performance- It should be tested and maintained properly. †¢ Reliability- Software reliability brings up the concept of modularity. A package with a high degree of modularity has the capacity to operate in many machine configurations and perhaps across manufacture product lines. 3. 3 Hardware and Software Requirements Software Requirements †¢ Front End: ASP †¢ IDE:Visual studio 2005 †¢ Language:C# †¢ Back End: MS Access †¢ Operating System: Windows XP Hardware Requirements †¢ PROCESSOR : Pentium – IV †¢ RAM : 512MB †¢ HDD:20GB CHAPTER 4 SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS 4. 1 System design Design is an important step in the development of large scale system. Design provides us with a blue print to develop a system. Once the software requirements have been analyzed and specified the software design can be expressed using notations such as DFDs, UML notations to describe the proposed solution to the problem . These Notations allows us to understand complex system clearly and serves as blue print for the proposed system. The design activities are of main importance because this activity ultimately affecting the sources of the software implementation and its ease of maintenance are made . hese deceptions have the bearing upon reliability and maintainability of the system. Proper design is the only way to accurately translate the customer’s requirements into finished software or a system. Software design generally involve two steps 1. Preliminary Design 2. Detail Design The preliminary design is used to translate the problem specifications into a graphical system rep resentation. The Detailed design is concerned with breaking the whole solution into number of modules. This process of division of system into many sub modules reduces the complexity of problem solving. . 2 Modules and Description College Management System mainly deals with Employee Profile, Payroll Management and Fee collection which can be managed by the Admin. 4. 2. 1 Modules: 1. Employee Profile 2. Payroll Management 3. Fee collection 2. Description: 1. Employee Profile Admin will enter the details of employee profile. Employee Profile contains the all details of employee with their profile photo, it is also contains the achievements of employee and workshops they have conducted. Admin also search the details of employee. 2. Payroll Management Payroll Management calculates employee salary. 3. Fee collection Fee collection tracks all the fee details of a student from the day one to the end of his course. 4. 3 Usecase Modeling Use Case Diagrams represents the functionality of the system from a user’s point view. They define the boundaries of the system. [pic] Fig 4. 3. 1 4. 4 Sequence Diagram The sequence diagram represents the system’s behavior in terms of interactions among a set of objects. They are used to identify the objectives in the application and implementation domain. Fig 4. 4. 1 [pic] 4. 5 Activity Diagram Activity diagram is another important diagram in UML to describe dynamic aspects of the system. It is basically a flow chart to represent the flow form one activity to another activity. The activity can be described as an operation of the system. So the control flow is drawn from one operation to another. This flow can be sequential, branched or concurrent. Activity diagrams deals with all type of flow control by using different elements like fork, join etc. Purpose: The basic purposes of activity diagrams are similar to other four diagrams. It captures the dynamic behavior of the system. Other four diagrams are used to show the message flow from one object to another but activity diagram is used to show message flow from one activity to another. Activity is a particular operation of the system. Activity diagrams are not only used for visualizing dynamic nature of a system but they are also used to construct the executable system by using forward and reverse engineering techniques. The only missing thing in activity diagram is the message part. It does not show any message flow from one activity to another. Activity diagram is some time considered as the flow chart. Although the diagrams looks like a flow chart but it is not. It shows different flow like parallel, branched, concurrent and single. †¢ Draw the activity flow of a system. †¢ Describe the sequence from one activity to another. †¢ Describe the parallel, branched and concurrent flow of the system. [pic] Fig 4. 5. 1 4. 6 Data flow diagram Designing with the Data Flow Diagrams involves creating a model of the system. The entities and attributes are a model, of the states of the system. Processes model the rules of a System. The stimuli and response are modeled by Data Flows. All of these models are combined into one graphic model called a Data Flow Diagram. DFD’s have a notation for each of the components of the system. They also have a notation for representing different levels in a hierarchy of detailed used to describe the system. This notation makes it possible to represent an overall view of a large complex system and a detailed view of a part of a system using the same notation. Parts of the system can be isolated into independent sub-system. [pic] Fig 4. 6. 1 CHAPTER 5 IMPLEMENTATION 5. 1 Software tools used 5. 1. 1 ASP What is ASP? ASP stands for Active Server Pages. Microsoft introduced Active Server Pages inDecember 1996, beginning with Version 3. 0. Microsoft officially defines ASP as:â€Å"Active Server Pages is an open, compile-free application environment in which you can combine HTML, scripts, and reusable ActiveX server components to create dynamic and powerful Web-based business solutions. Active Server pages enables server side scripting for IIS with native support for both VBScript and Jscript. † In other words, ASP is a Microsoft technology that enables you to create dynamic web sites with the help of server side script, such as VBScript and Jscript. ASP technology is supported on all Microsoft Web servers that are freely available. What is an ASP file? An ASP file is quite like an HTML file. It contains text, HTML tags and scripts, which are executed on the server. The two widely used scripting languages for an ASP page are VBScript and JScript. VBScript is pretty much like Visual Basic, whereas Jscript is the Microsoft’s version of JavaScript. However, VBScript is the default scripting language for ASP (3). Besides these two scripting languages, you can use other scripting language with ASP as long as you have an ActiveX scripting engine for the language installed, such as PerlScript. The difference between an HTML file and an ASP file is that an ASP file has the â€Å". asp† extension. Furthermore, script delimiters for HTML tags and ASP code are also different. A script delimiter is a character that marks the starting and ending of a unit. HTML tags begins with lesser than () brackets, whereas ASP script typically starts with . In between the delimiters are the server-side scripts. ASP includes five build-in objects:  · Request – to get information from the user that is passed along with an HTTP request  · Response – to output data to the requesting client Server – to control the Internet Information Server  · Session – to store variables associated with a given user session  · Application – to store information that remain active for the lifetime of an application, such as a page counter. What are its advantages? 1. Dynamic web page – Since ASP supports scripting languages, which run on the web server, yo ur web page can be dynamically created. For example, you can create your web page so as to greeting each user when they log into your page differently. 2. Browser independent – ASP is browser independent because all the scripting code runs on the server. The browser only gets the results from the server in a standard HTML page. 3. Database Access – One of the greatest assets of ASP is database connectivity. ASP enables you to easily build rich database functionality into your web site, such as form processing. 4. Building-in objects – The five built-in objects that come with ASP facilitate Web application development. For example, you can use Request object to retrieve browser request information. 5. Free availability – Yes, it’s free. You can download web server (IIS or PWS) for free from Microsoft’s web site. You don’t even have to have any special tool to write an ASP file. In other words, you can simply use any text editor, like NotePad. 5. 1. 2 C# Language C# programs run on the . NET Framework, an integral component of Windows that includes a virtual execution system called the common language runtime (CLR) and a unified set of class libraries. The CLR is Microsofts commercial implementation of the common language infrastructure (CLI), an international standard that is the basis for creating execution and development environments in which languages and libraries work together seamlessly. Source code written in C# is compiled into an intermediate language (IL) that conforms to the CLI specification. The IL code, along with resources such as bitmaps and strings, is stored on disk in an executable file called an assembly, typically with an extension of . exe or . dll. An assembly contains a manifest that provides information on the assemblys types, version, culture, and security requirements. When the C# program is executed, the assembly is loaded into the CLR, which might take various actions based on the information in the manifest. Then, if the security requirements are met, the CLR performs just in time (JIT) compilation to convert the IL code into native machine instructions. The CLR also provides other services related to automatic garbage collection, exception handling, and resource management. Code that is executed by the CLR is sometimes referred to as managed code, in contrast to unmanaged code which is compiled into native machine language that targets a specific system. The following diagram illustrates the compile-time and run time relationships of C# source code files, the base class libraries, assemblies, and the CLR. pic] Language interoperability is a key feature of the . NET Framework. Because the IL code produced by the C# compiler conforms to the Common Type Specification (CTS), IL code generated from C# can interact with code that was generated from the . NET versions of Visual Basic, Visual C++, Visual J#, or any of more than 20 other CTS-compliant languages. A single assembly may contain mul tiple modules written in different . NET languages, and the types can reference each other just as if they were written in the same language. In addition to the run time services, the . NET Framework also includes an extensive library of over 4000 classes organized into namespaces that provide a wide variety of useful functionality for everything from file input and output to string manipulation to XML parsing, to Windows Forms controls. The typical C# application uses the . NET Framework class library extensively to handle common plumbing chores. 5. 1. 3 MS Access Microsoft Office Access, previously known as Microsoft Access, is a database management system from Microsoft that combines the relational Microsoft Jet Database Engine with a graphical user interface and software-development tools. MS Access stores data in its own format based on the Access Jet Database Engine. It can also import or link directly to data stored in other applications and databases. Software developers and data architects can use Microsoft Access to develop application software, and power users can use it to build software applications. Like other Office applications, Access is supported by Visual Basic for Applications, an object-oriented programming language that can reference a variety of objects including DAO (Data Access Objects), ActiveX Data Objects, and many other ActiveX components. Visual objects used in forms and reports expose their methods and properties in the VBA programming environment, and VBA code modules may declare and call Windows operating-system functions. USES: ? In addition to using its own database storage file, Microsoft Access may also be used as the front-end with other products as the back-end tables, such as Microsoft SQL Server ? Access tables support a variety of standard field types, indices, and referential integrity. Access also includes a query interface, forms to display and enter data, and reports for printing. The number of simultaneous users that can be supported depends on the amount of data, the tasks being performed, level of use, and application design. FEATURES ? Users can create tables, queries, forms and reports, and connect them together with macros. ? The original concept of Access was for end users to be able to access data from any source. ? Microsoft Access offers parameterized queries. These queries and Access tables can be referenced from other programs like VB6 and . NET through DAO or ADO. From Microsoft Access, VBA can reference parameterized stored procedures via ADO. . 1. 4 Microsoft Visual Studio IDE Microsoft Visual Studio is an integrated development environment (IDE) from Microsoft. It is used to develop console and graphical user interface applications along with Windows Forms applications, web sites, web applications, and web services in both native code together with managed code for all platforms supported by Microsoft Windows, Windows Mobile, Windows CE, . NET Framework, . NET Compact Framework and Microsoft Silverlight. Visual Studio includes a code editor supporting IntelliSense as well as code refactoring. The integrated debugger works both as a source-level debugger and a machine-level debugger. Other built-in tools include a forms designer for building GUI applications, web designer, class designer, and database schema designer. It accepts plug-ins that enhance the functionality at almost every level—including adding support for source-control systems (like Subversion and Visual SourceSafe) and adding new toolsets like editors and visual designers for domain-specific languages or toolsets for other aspects of the software development lifecycle (like the Team Foundation Server client: Team Explorer). It provides a way to check the functionality of components, sub assemblies, assemblies and /or a finished product. It is a process of exercising software with the intent of ensuring that the software system needs its requirements and user expectations and doesn’t fall in an unacceptable manner. 6. 2 Functional Testing Functional tests provide systematic demonstrations that functions tested are available as specified by the business and technical requirements, system documentation, and user manuals. †¢ Functional testing is centered on the following items: †¢ Valid messages: Identified classes of valid messages must be accepted. Invalid messages: Identified classes of invalid messages must be rejected. †¢ Functions: Identified functions must be exercised. †¢ Output: Identified classes of application outputs must be exercised. †¢ Systems/Procedures: Interfacing systems or procedures must be invoked. 6. 3 Unit Testing In computer programming, unit testing is a method by which individual units of source code, sets of one or more computer program modules together with associated control data, usage procedures, and operating procedures, are tested to determine if they are fit for use. Intuitively, one can view a unit as the smallest testable part of an application. The goal of unit testing is to isolate each part of the program and show that the individual parts are correct. 6. 4 Integration Testing Software integration testing is the incremental integration testing of two or more integrated software components on a single platform to produce failures caused by interface defects. Integration testing (sometimes called Integration and Testing, abbreviated IT) is the phase in software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group. It occurs after unit testing and before validation testing. Integration testing takes as its input modules that have been unit tested, groups them in larger aggregates, applies tests defined in an integration test plan to those aggregates, and delivers as its output the integrated system ready for system testing. 6. 5 System Testing 6. 5. 1 Verification Verification is intended to check that a product, service, or system meets a set of initial design requirements, specifications, and regulations. In the development phase, verification procedures involve performing special tests to model or simulate a portion, or the entirety, of a product, service or system, then performing a review or analysis of the modeling results. In the post-development phase, verification procedures involve regularly repeating tests devised specifically to ensure that the product, service, or system continues to meet the initial design requirements, specifications, and regulations as time progresses. citation needed] It is a process that is used to evaluate whether a product, service, or system complies with regulations, specifications, or conditions imposed at the start of a development phase. Verification can be in development, scale-up, or production. This is often an internal process. 6. 5. 2 Validation Validation is intended to check that development and verification procedures for a product, service, or system (or portion thereof, or set thereof) result in a product, service, or system (or portio n thereof, or set thereof) that meets initial requirements, specifications, and regulations. For a new development flow or verification flow, validation procedures may involve modeling either flow and using simulations to predict faults or gaps that might lead to invalid or incomplete verification or development of a product, service, or system (or portion thereof, or set thereof). A set of validation requirements, specifications, and regulations may then be used as a basis for qualifying a development flow or verification flow for a product, service, or system (or portion thereof, or set thereof). Additional validation procedures also include those that are designed specifically to ensure that modifications made to an existing qualified development flow or verification flow will have the effect of producing a product, service, or system (or portion thereof, or set thereof) that meets the initial design requirements, specifications, and regulations; these validations help to keep the flow qualified. [citation needed] It is a process of establishing evidence that provides a high degree of assurance that a product, service, or system accomplishes its intended requirements. . 5. 3 White-Box Testing White-box testing (also known as clear box testing, glass box testing, transparent box testing, and structural testing) is a method of testing software that tests internal structures or workings of an application, as opposed to its functionality (i. e. black-box testing). In white-box testing an internal perspective of the system, as well as programming skills, are used to design test c ases. The tester chooses inputs to exercise paths through the code and determine the appropriate outputs. This is analogous to testing nodes in a circuit.